Heidegger on Da-sein

According the Heidegger being has the character of Da-sein, and the fundamental structure of Da-sein is being-in-the-world (Heidegger 1996, 37). This structure is constantly whole. The essence of this being lies in its to be (Heidegger 1996, 39); the essence of Da-sein lies in its existence (Heidegger 1996, 40).
Da-sein is in general determined by always being-mine (Heidegger 1996, 40), it defines itself in terms of a possibility which it is and somehow understands in its being (Heidegger 1996, 41). All existing is how it is out of this kind of being, and back into it (Heidegger 1996, 41). It is comprehensible from the very beginning as what it is and already is in every being (Heidegger 1996, 42). The two fundamental possibilities of the characteristics of being are existentials and categories (Heidegger 1996, 42).

Heidegger and Descartes

Heidegger says that Descartes leaves the sum completely undiscussed. The sum needs to be defined because only then the cogitationes become comprehensible (Heidegger 1996, 43). The phenomenal content of Da-sein is missed when the point of departure is an initially given ego and subject (Heidegger 1996, 43).

Da-sein as being-in-the-world

Being-in-the-world is the fundamental constitution of Da-sein. Da-sein is the being which I myself always am (Heidegger 1996, 49). Mineness belongs to existing Da-sein as the condition of the possibility of authenticity and inauthenticity (Heidegger 1996, 49). Being-in-the-world is a unified phenomenon. Being-in means being-in somehing (Heidegger 1996, 50). It is the objective presence ‘in’ something objectively present. It designates a constitution of being of Da-sein and is an existential (Heidegger 1996, 50). Being-in is the formal existential expression of the being of Da-sein (Heidegger 1996, 51), and its being toward the world is essentially taking care (Heidegger 1996, 53).
Da-sein understands itself ontologically in terms of those beings and their being which it itself is not, but which it encounters ‘within’ its world (Heidegger 1996, 55). This kind of being toward the world which lets us encounter beings within the world makes possible the looking at something (Heidegger 1996, 57). In this way a perception takes place of what is objectively present (Heidegger 1996, 58), and this perception becomes definition. In knowing the Da-sein a new perspective of being toward the world is discovered (Heidegger 1996, 58). And this is founded in being-in-the-world. Thus, a context of things at hand is already essentially discovered with its being (Heidegger 1996, 81).

Da-sein as ‘They’

In what is taken care of in the surrounding world, the others are encountered as what they are. They are what they do (Heidegger 1996, 81). The who is not this one and not that one, not the sum of all, the ‘who’ is the neuter, the they (Heidegger 1996, 119). The they has its own ways to be. In its being, the they is essentially concerned with averageness (Heidegger 1996, 119). On this is based the tendency of being-with that is called distantiality. All of these constitute what we know as ‘publicness’ (Heidegger 1996, 119). And in all of these characteristics of being lies the ‘constancy’ of Da-sein (Heidegger 1996, 120). The they is an existential and belongs as a primordial phenomenon to the positive constitution of Da-sein (Heidegger 1996, 121).

Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Translated by Joan Stambaugh. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

blog comments powered by Disqus